The Republican Party was neither strong nor united. When the Republican leaders, on legal scruples, refused to declare for a federal republic, the provincial federal extremists revolted. Simultaneously the authorities had to deal with a new uprising by the Carlists, the Second Carlist War — The Republican leaders had allowed attacks on the army that had reduced it to impotence.
Amadeo I of Spain
Too late, Emilio Castelar y Ripoll , the last president of the republic, tried to recapture the loyalty of the army. General Serrano took over as president of a unitary republic ruled from Madrid.
His main task was victory over the Carlists, now a strong force in northern Spain. There was no resistance.
Finca Amadeo | A&K Villas
The extreme threat of anarchy in had resulted in a strong conservative reaction, strengthened by the religious policies pursued since The constitution of for the first time had allowed complete freedom of religion. Despite its failure to deliver political stability, the Revolution of bequeathed to Spain the model of a modern secular state based on universal suffrage. Although anarchists were persecuted after , the movement was kept alive by small groups of enthusiasts. The independence movement in Cuba , which, along with Puerto Rico , was the last possession of Spain in America , posed the worst problem for Spain in the period — Cubans had long resented the failure to reform rule by captains general, to grant some autonomy , and to ease the economic sacrifices that were imposed by the Spanish tariff system.
The war made difficulties for all governments in power in Spain after and forced abandonment of the most popular of the pledges made by the rebels in the abolition of the arbitrary and socially selective recruitment system.
Like the Carlist wars, the war in Cuba tended to favour the monarchical reaction. This stability was sustained by an uneven but respectable economic growth. Only in this way could the government selected by the king and the politicians in Madrid obtain a parliamentary majority. Extensive corruption and the use of administrative pressures on electors were considered the only ways to make the parliamentary system work in an underdeveloped society.
The third largest wool industry in Europe grew up alongside the older cotton mills in Catalonia. The boom did not break until the late s, when an agricultural depression set in. A wave of economic pessimism preceded the political and intellectual reaction of The loss of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines in following the Spanish-American War exposed the Spanish political system to severe criticism.
No fiscal and political reform sufficient to satisfy Cuban demands could be effected within the framework of the monarchy, partly because of the pressure of the Spanish loyalist party in Cuba. A revolt in set off another costly war against Cuban guerrillas. The intervention of the United States could not be staved off by a last-minute grant of autonomy. Criticism of the restoration monarchy came from the Catalan and Basque regionalists, a revived Republican Party , the proletarian parties, the army, the more forward-looking of the Spanish politicians, and intellectuals. Basque regionalism, though more akin in its ideas to extreme nationalist movements, was less a challenge than Catalan regionalism.
Anti-Catalan sentiment was particularly strong among army officers, still smarting from the defeat of A string of antimilitary cartoons in Catalan periodicals led members of the Barcelona garrison to sack the offices of these publications the Cu-Cut! In the election the Solidaridad Catalana defeated the establishment parties but then divided into a right wing which accepted a solution within the monarchy and a left wing which was to drift to Republicanism.
This alliance gave the party a political leverage in excess of its voting strength. Opposed by the professional party members, Maura only succeeded in confusing the party structure by splitting the Conservative Party. The call up of troops for Morocco, where Spanish troops were engaged in operations protecting the Spanish coastal possessions, set off the Tragic Week of in Barcelona. Learn More - opens in a new window or tab Any international shipping and import charges are paid in part to Pitney Bowes Inc.
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Episodios Nacionales V. Amadeo I by Benito Pérez Galdós (2014, Paperback)
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